Introduction: The aim of this study was to examine a potential link between apoptotic biomarkers in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) and periodontal destruction in four cases of localized aggressive periodontitis (LAP), diagnostically enhanced by cone beam computed tomography. Case series: This study examined the GCF in four patients diagnosed with LAP (formerly localized juvenile periodontitis) at a routine periodontal examination. The LAP diseased sites had attachment loss ranging from 5-12 mm. A total of 62 samples of GCF were collected from diseased sites and from contralateral, matched healthy sites with minimal or no attachment loss. All samples were assayed for apoptotic markers, including Fas/FasL, DNA fragmentation, and nitric oxide. The GCF samples were analyzed utilizing enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for DNA fragments and nitric oxide levels, whereas Western blotting was used for Fas/FasL analyses. Our results showed a significant increase in the apoptotic markers Fas/FasL and DNA fragmentation when comparing GCF from diseased versus non-diseased sites in patients with LAP. Conclusion: To our knowledge, this is the first report of apoptotic biomarkers associated with patients diagnosed with LAP. Finding significantly increased levels of these markers in localized areas may help us understand the pathophysiology associated with this specific form of periodontitis, and, furthermore, may provide a basis for a quantifiably prognostic test when attempting to treat this disease.
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